The wonders of the natural world have always captivated our imagination, and a recent study by Greenspoon et al. (2023) has taken us a step closer to unraveling the mysteries of the wild mammalian realm. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, this research delves into the global biomass of wild mammals, shedding light on the intricate web of life that surrounds us. In this article, we will explore their fascinating findings, providing not only a deep insight into our ecosystems but also igniting a call to action for heightened conservation efforts.


  • In a groundbreaking study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers led by Greenspoon et al. (2023) have unveiled the global biomass of wild mammals, providing a comprehensive insight into the distribution and impact of these creatures on Earth.

  • The research reveals a total wet biomass of approximately 22 million tonnes for all terrestrial wild mammals, with iconic species like white-tailed deer, wild boar, and African elephants emerging as primary contributors to the overall biomass.

  • Surprisingly, despite their diverse species, only around 10 mammalian species, including white-tailed deer and wild boar, account for nearly 40% of the total biomass of wild land mammals, emphasizing the disproportionate impact of a few species on the global scale.

  • The study not only highlights the urgent need for nature conservation efforts but also sheds light on the dominance of human-associated mammals, including livestock and pets, whose biomass far outweighs that of wild terrestrial and marine mammals combined.

Our world, once perceived as vast and boundless, is revealing signs of dramatic transformation. A recent study, led by notable researchers such as Greenspoon et al., brings us closer to the lives of wild mammals—often icons of conservation efforts. Unbeknownst to many, the existence and crucial roles of these wild mammals in ecosystems are often overlooked. However, this research opens our eyes to the importance of understanding the total biomass of wild mammals on Earth.

Quoting this study, biomass is a metric that allows us to gauge the impact of a species on its environment. In the context of wild mammals, the research estimates that the total biomass of terrestrial wild mammals reaches approximately 22 million tons wet weight, equivalent to around 7 million tons dry weight or 3 million tons of carbon content. These numbers seem to lift the thick curtain that obscures the diversity of creatures we share the Earth with.

Yet, what makes these findings even more intriguing is the uneven distribution of biomass. Only about 10 species of terrestrial wild mammals contribute to around 40% of the total biomass. White-tailed deer, wild boar, and African elephants emerge as major contributors, with white-tailed deer alone contributing approximately 10% of the total terrestrial wild mammal biomass. Surprising, isn’t it? Who would have thought that so few species could have such a significant impact on the global ecosystem?

However, amidst the beauty of these findings, there are also darker notes. The study notes that around 30% of terrestrial wild mammal species live in both natural habitats and human-dominated environments such as plantations and urban areas. Some of the largest contributors to biomass, such as white-tailed deer and wild boar, are often considered pests and are regularly exterminated in some locations. This reflects the increasing human influence on wild mammal life, even for species considered “wild.”

Not only that, but the research also provides an intriguing insight into the comparison between the biomass of wild mammals and those domesticated by humans. The results are quite staggering—wild mammal biomass, reaching around 22 million tons, pales in comparison to the biomass of mammals living with humans, which reaches around 630 million tons. The increase in the human population, global demand for animal-based products, and the expansion of industrial farming contribute significantly to this imbalance.

It is worth noting that the study also gives us a deeper understanding of the distribution of marine mammal biomass, reaching around 39 million tons. Baleen whales emerge as major contributors, contributing about 60% of the total marine mammal biomass. This analysis not only provides information about life on land but also opens our eyes to the importance of maintaining balance in marine ecosystems.

So, what can we take away from all these fascinating findings? Firstly, we must be aware of the significant influence of humans on wild mammal life and the importance of environmental conservation. Secondly, the uneven distribution of biomass highlights the importance of preserving species diversity and ecosystems. Lastly, the comparison between the biomass of wild mammals and those living with humans offers us a reflection on how our activities can reshape the global landscape.

In the face of an uncertain future, conservation efforts and environmental awareness are becoming increasingly urgent. Perhaps it’s time for all of us to think more seriously about how we can contribute to preserving sustainability and biodiversity on this planet. Every small action we take can have a significant impact on the future of a better Earth.


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